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Campaigner, Writer, Trainer, Management, Consultant & Director - Working for Equality


Employment Issues Advice - DirectGov


Free advice is available from Directgov – A government sponsored helpline available through http://www.direct.gov.uk/en/Employment/index.htm

Pay and Work Rights Helpline – you have a powerful friend

Contacting the helpline to make a complaint if you are receiving your rights with the National Minimum Wage, Agricultural Minimum Wage, working time, employment agencies or gangmasters
Pay and Work Rights Helpline provides information and advice in all the following areas to employees and employers.

Jobseekers

 Help and advice when applying for a job
 Jobcentre Plus programmes and services
 Looking for work
 Planning a career

Work and families (parents section)

Pregnancy and maternity rights
Paternity rights in the workplace
Parental leave and flexible working
Adoption rights in the workplace

Employment terms and conditions

Pay
The National Minimum Wage
Time off and holidays
More about employment terms and conditions

Redundancy and leaving your job

Redundancy
Resigning or retiring
Dismissals

Understanding your work status

Agency workers and employment agencies
Agricultural workers
Migrant workers
More about your work status

Problems at work
 Grievance procedures
 Disciplinary procedures
 Employment Tribunals
 More about problems at work

Trade unions

 Trade union membership
 Trade unions in the workplace
 Industrial action

Health and safety at work

 Employees' health and safety responsibilities
 Employers' health and safety responsibilities
 Workplace stress
 More about health and safety at work

Employee information and consultation

 Employee information and consultation rights
 New information and consultation arrangements
 Types of information and consultation arrangements
 Information and consultation in multinational companies
 Work and careers (young people section)
 Employment support (disabled people section)
 Carers and employment (caring for someone section)
 Training and work-based learning (education and learning section)

ACAS ADVICE AND GUIDELINES ON SPECIFIC AREAS OF EQUALITY

Website http://www.acas.org.uk

AGE DISCRIMINATION

The Employment Equality (Age) Regulations 2006 cover all employees and workers of any age, protecting them from age discrimination including partners of firms, contract workers and anyone in vocational training.
All aspects of employment (or prospective employment) are protected from age discrimination, including recruitment, employment terms and conditions, promotions, transfers, dismissals and training.

There is no statutory upper age limit on the right to claim unfair dismissal or to receive redundancy payments. The default retirement age is 65, making compulsory retirement below 65 unlawful unless objectively justified. In addition, all employees have the right to request to work beyond 65 or any other retirement age set by the organisation and employers must give such requests consideration.

The Employment Equality (Age) Regulations 2006 make it unlawful to discriminate against employees, job seekers and trainees because of their age. This includes direct and indirect discrimination, harassment and victimisation. The regulations also:

 removed upper age limits on unfair dismissal and redundancy
 introduced a national default retirement age of 65, making compulsory retirement below 65 unlawful unless objectively justified
 gave all employees the right to request to work beyond 65 or any other retirement age set by the company

It is not unlawful to request a candidate's date of birth but an employer must be careful not to use it to discriminate.

The regulations apply to all workers, including office holders, police, barristers and partners in a business. They also cover related areas such as membership of trade organisations, the award of qualifications, the services of careers guidance organisations, employment agencies and vocational training providers, including further and higher education institutions.

The regulations also cover you if you apply to an organisation for work, or if you already work for an organisation – whether you're directly employed, work under some other kind of contract, or are an agency worker. Employers are also responsible for the behaviour of their employees towards an individual working for someone else but on their premises, for example if you're in another organisation repairing a piece of equipment.

If you feel you've been discriminated against, you'll be able to bring a claim to an Employment Tribunal. However, it's best to talk to your employer first to try to sort out the matter informally, in order to minimise the negative effects on all parties involved.
Through the Acas Helpline (08457 47 47 47) you can get advice on specific problems, and explore alternatives to an Employment Tribunal claim, such as mediation or Pre-Claim Conciliation, where appropriate.

The Employment Equality (Age) Regulations 2006 make it unlawful to discriminate against employees, job seekers and trainees because of their age. This includes direct and indirect discrimination, harassment and victimisation. The regulations also:

 removed upper age limits on unfair dismissal and redundancy
 introduced a national default retirement age of 65, making compulsory retirement below 65 unlawful unless objectively justified
 gave all employees the right to request to work beyond 65 or any other retirement age set by the company
It is not unlawful to request a candidate's date of birth but asking for age-related information on an application form could allow discrimination to take place. It would be best practice to remove the date of birth/age from the main application form and include it in a diversity monitoring form to be retained by HR/personnel

The regulations apply to all workers, including office holders, police, barristers and partners in a business. They also cover related areas such as membership of trade organisations, the award of qualifications, the services of careers guidance organisations, employment agencies and vocational training providers, including further and higher education institutions.

The regulations also cover anyone who applies to an organisation for work, or who already works for an organisation – whether they are directly employed, work under some other kind of contract, or are an agency worker. You will also be responsible for the behaviour of your employees towards an individual working for someone else but on their premises, for example someone from another organisation repairing a piece of your equipment.
You are covered by the regulations except for the provisions covering retirement and the right to request. Partnerships will need to objectively justify their decisions on age issues and for retirement. It would be sensible for partners to have clear records of these decisions at partnership meetings to show they meet business objectives, are properly considered and regularly reviewed. Such records may help support any case for objective justification.

Further information

Advisory booklet
• Advisory booklet - Delivering Equality & Diversity
Advice leaflet
• Advice leaflet - Age and the workplace: Putting the Employment Equality (Age) Regulations 2006 into practice
Tools
• Equality & diversity
Other Sites
• Government Equalities Unit
• Equality and Diversity (BERR website)
• The Equality and Human Rights Commission
• You can download the Regulations from the Office of Public Sector Information
Acas Publications
• Guidance on Age and the workplace: a guide for employers [854kb]
• Age and the workplace: a guide for employers
• Full version of the Advice leaflet - Employing older workers [78kb]
• Full version of the Advice leaflet - Employing older workers


SEX DISCRIMINATION
It is unlawful to discriminate against workers because of their gender. Employers should ensure they have policies in place which are designed to prevent discrimination in.

 recruitment and selection
 determining pay
 training and development
 selection for promotion
 discipline and grievances
 countering bullying and harassment
Many employers have also found that making changes to their working practices makes good business sense and helps them attract the best people, including provisions for flexible working.

Under the Sex Discrimination Act 1975 (as amended), employers must not discriminate on grounds of sex, marriage, civil partnership, pregnancy, maternity, or because you intend to undergo, are undergoing or have undergone gender reassignment.
Sex discrimination is discrimination on the ground of sex. All terms and conditions of employment are covered. It also includes applying a 'provision, criterion or practice' which, although it applies to men and women equally, puts women at a disadvantage compared to men and which the employer cannot show is a proportionate means of achieving a legitimate aim. Such an example could be a requirement to work full time.

In very limited circumstances, there are some jobs which can require that the job-holder is a man or a woman. This is known as a 'genuine occupational qualification'. The list of genuine occupational qualifications is restricted. One example is where the job holder is likely to work in circumstances where members of one sex are in a state of undress and might reasonably object to the presence of a member of the opposite sex such as a bra-fitting service.

If you feel you've been discriminated against, you'll be able to bring a claim to an Employment Tribunal. However, it's best to talk to your employer first to try to sort out the matter informally, in order to minimise the negative effects on all parties involved.
Through the Acas Helpline (08457 47 47 47) you can get advice on specific problems, and explore alternatives to an Employment Tribunal claim, such as mediation or Pre-Claim Conciliation, where appropriate.

Under the Sex Discrimination Act 1975 (as amended), employers must not discriminate on grounds of sex, marriage, civil partnership, pregnancy, maternity, or because you intend to undergo, are undergoing or have undergone gender reassignment.

Sex discrimination is discrimination on the ground of sex. All terms and conditions of employment are covered. It also includes applying a 'provision, criterion or practice' which, although it applies to men and women equally, puts women at a disadvantage compared to men and which the employer cannot show is a proportionate means of achieving a legitimate aim. Such an example could be a requirement to work full time.


Further information

Advisory booklet
• Advisory booklet - Delivering Equality & Diversity
Tools
• Equality & diversity
Other Sites
• Government Equalities Unit
• The Equality and Human Rights Commission
• Equality and Diversity (BERR website)
• Code of Practice - Sex Discrimination (EOC legacy website)
Acas Publications
• Guidance on Sexual orientation and the workplace [301kb]
• Guidance on Sexual orientation and the workplace


RACE DISCRIMINATION

It is unlawful to discriminate against a job-seeker, worker or trainee on grounds of race, colour, nationality, and ethnic or national origins. Employers should ensure they have policies in place which are designed to prevent discrimination in:
 recruitment and selection
 determining pay
 training and development
 selection for promotion
 discipline and grievances
 countering bullying and harassment
The Race Relations Act 1976 (as amended) makes it unlawful to treat a person less favourably than others on racial grounds.

Race discrimination covers all terms and conditions of employment – from recruitment to pay, and training to the termination of a contract.

Race discrimination occurs when a person is treated less favourably on grounds of race, colour, and nationality, ethnic or national origin.

All terms and conditions of employment are covered. It also includes applying a 'provision, criterion or practice' which, although it applies to everyone equally, disproportionately disadvantages workers of a particular racial group compared to another and which the employer cannot show is a proportionate means of achieving a legitimate aim. Such an example could be a requirement for all applicants to have GCSE Maths and English – people educated in countries which don't' have GCSEs would be discriminated against. Could correct this by including the words "or equivalent".

In very limited circumstances, there are some jobs which can require that the job-holder is of a particular racial group. This is known as a 'genuine occupational requirement'. One example is where the job-holder provides personal welfare services to a limited number of people and those services can most effectively be provided by a person of a particular racial group because of cultural needs and sensitivities.

If you feel you've been discriminated against, you'll be able to bring a claim to an Employment Tribunal. However, it's best to talk to your employer first to try to sort out the matter informally, in order to minimise the negative effects on all parties involved.
Through the Acas Helpline (08457 47 47 47) you can get advice on specific problems, and explore alternatives to an Employment Tribunal claim, such as mediation or Pre-Claim Conciliation, where appropriate.

The Race Relations Act 1976 (as amended) makes it illegal to treat a person less favourably than others on racial grounds.
Race discrimination covers all aspects of employment – from recruitment to pay, and training to the termination of a contract.

Discrimination covers four areas:

 direct discrimination: treating someone less favourably on racial grounds
 indirect discrimination: can occur where it appears that all workers are treated the same, regardless of race but where it becomes apparent that workers of a particular racial group suffer or are likely more likely to suffer a disadvantage.
 Harassment: when unwanted conduct has the purpose or effect of violating a person's dignity or creating an intimidating, hostile, degrading or humiliating environment for another person.
 Victimisation: unfair treatment of an employee who has made a complaint about racial discrimination.
In very limited circumstances, there are some jobs which can require that the job-holder is of a particular racial group. This is known as a 'genuine occupational requirement'. One example is where the job-holder provides personal welfare services to a limited number of people and those services can most effectively be provided by a person of a particular racial group because of cultural needs and sensitivities.

Further information

Advisory booklet
• Advisory booklet - Delivering Equality & Diversity
Tools
• Equality & diversity
Other Sites
• Government Equalities Unit
• Equality and Diversity (BERR website)
• The Equality and Human Rights Commission

OVERVIEW OF CURRENT UK EQUALTIES LEGISLATION

Please note that this is intended to be a basic guide and not a statement of the law. More detailed information on the laws covering equality of opportunity should be sought via appropriate legal advice. Local law centre and Citizens Advice Bureau may be able to assist you

LEGISLATION

The following list shows most of the major employment legislation influencing equality and diversity in the workplace:

 Treaty of Rome (1957) Article 119
 The Equal Pay Act (1970) and (1983)
 Rehabilitation of Offenders Act (1974)
 Sex Discrimination Act (1975) and (1986)
 The Race Relations Act (1976)
 Disability Discrimination Act (1995)
 Disability Rights Commission Act (1995)
 Employment Rights Act (1996)
 Human Rights Act (1998)
 Sex Discrimination (Gender Reassignment) Regulations (1999)
 Article 13 of the Treaty of Amsterdam (1999)
 The Race Relations (Amendment) Act (2000)
 Special Educational Needs & Disability Act (SENDA) (2000)
 Race Relations Act 1976 (Amendment) Regulations (2003)
 Employment Equality (Sexual Orientation) Regulations (2003)
 Employment Equality (Religion or Belief) Regulations (2003)
 The Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (Amendment) Regulations (2003)
 The Gender Recognition Act (2004)
 Civil Partnership Act (2004)
 Disability Discrimination Act (2005)
 Employment Equality (Sex discrimination) Regulations (2005)
 The Equality Act (2006)
 Employment Equality (Age) Regulations (2006)
 The Equality Act (Sexual Orientation) Regulations (2007)
Additional Legislation Affording Protection OutsideThe Workplace
 Public Order Act (1986)
 Protection from Harassment Act 1997
 Crime and Disorder Act 1998

Treaty of Rome (1957) Article 119

In 1957 the Treaty of Rome established the European Community which was to provide for, among other things, the freedom of movement of the labour force and equality of opportunity. Article 119 of the Treaty provides that men and women should receive equal pay for equal work. For the purpose of this Article, ‘pay’ means the ordinary basic or minimum wage or salary and any other consideration whether in cash or in kind, which the work receives, directly or indirectly, in respect of his or her employment from his or her employer. Equal pay without sex discrimination, means:
 That pay for the same work at piece rates shall be calculated on the basis of the same unit of measurement;
 That pay for work at time rates shall be the same for the same job.

Equal Pay Act 1970 (and amendments)

This Act prevents discrimination between male and female employees in the same job in relation to pay and terms and conditions. It introduced the concept of equal pay for work of equal value.

Rehabilitation of Offenders Act 1974

Its principal effect is to allow, in certain circumstances, the convictions of offenders to become ‘spent’. This means that they do not have to be disclosed when applying for a job or for training, or when disclosing other previous convictions to a court. The type of conviction which may become spent and the time limits do vary both in terms of the offence and the sentence which was given to the offender. This legislation seeks to remove ‘previous offence discrimination’.

Sex Discrimination Act 1975

This Act makes it unlawful to treat a woman or a man less favourably in employment, training and related matters, education and the provision of goods, facilities and services on the grounds of their gender or marriage.

Race Relations Act 1976

This Act makes it unlawful to discriminate against a person on the grounds of race, colour, nationality, ethnic or national origins in employment, training and related matters, education and the provision of goods, facilities and services.

Public Order Act (1986)
Racial hatred is defined by the Public Order Act 1986 Section 17 as ‘hatred against a group of persons in Great Britain defined by reference to colour, race, nationality or ethnic origins’. The definition of ‘ethnic’ was provided in the case of Mandlau v Dovell Lee (1983). Here it was stated that an ethnic group is one that has a long and shared history, of which the group is conscious as distinguishing it from other groups, and the memory of which it kept alive and a cultural tradition of its own, including family and social customs and manners, often but not necessarily associated with religious observance.
Incitement to racial hatred is governed by section 21 of the Public Order Act 1986 which states that it will be an offence for a person to publish or distribute material which is threatening or abusive or insulting if:

 He intends thereby to stir up racial hatred, or
 Having regard to all the circumstances, racial hatred is likely to be stirred thereby.
Section 5 makes it a criminal offence to use threatening, abusive, insulting words or behaviour or disorderly behaviour within the hearing or sight of a person likely to be caused harassment, alarm or distress by that behaviour. There must be a victim present at the scene for this to be deemed an offence.

The Public Order Act 1986 provides the police with powers to arrest people who engage in disorderly, threatening or insulting behaviour. This is the lowest level of public order offence designed to cover minor acts of hooliganism but does not cover behaviour that includes violence or threats of violence.

Disability Discrimination Act 1995
This Act makes it unlawful to discriminate against a person on the grounds of disability in the areas of employment, provision of goods, facilities and services and buying or renting land or property. Disability is defined in the Act as ‘a physical or mental impairment which has a substantial and long term adverse effect on a person’s ability to carry out normal day to day duties’. ‘Long term’ is currently defined as 12 months or more, unless the person’s life expectancy is less than 12 months (for example, in some cases of cancer).

Employment Rights Act 1996

The Employment Rights Act1996 requires that certain terms and conditions must be set out in a single document – this can be a written "contract of employment" or a "statement of the main terms and conditions of employment". The written terms and conditions contain both contractual and statutory rights, that is, both those protected by law and those negotiated directly between the employer and the employee or representative.
The Act is important from an equality point of view for establishing maternity rights. However, it should be noted that some categories of worker are not covered by this legislation.

Protection from Harassment Act 1997

This Act makes it a criminal offence to harass another person or to cause a fear of violence. Unlike the Public Order Act there is no requirement to prove the offender intended their conduct to amount to harassment. Section 1 states that: a person must not pursue a course of conduct, which:

 amounts to harassment of another, and
 He knows or ought to know amounts to harassment of the other.
Harassment is defined as causing alarm or causing distress and states that ‘a course of conduct’ must involve conduct on at least two occasions.

Human Rights Act 1998

The European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) has been incorporated into UK law through the Human Rights Act. The Act introduces a range of political and civil rights. Under the Act, only a person considered a victim, who is directly affected can bring proceedings against a public authority. There are sixteen basic rights in the Act – some are absolute and some are qualified. In certain circumstances a restriction of a right can be legitimate if it is necessary to achieve the following objectives:
The restriction is –

 In the interests of national security, public safety or the economic well-being of the country
 Necessary for the prevention of crime or disorder
 Necessary for the protection of health and morals
 Necessary for the protection of the rights and freedoms of others
 Is applied in a non-discriminatory manner.
A qualified right can only be limited if it’s in accordance with all three of the following conditions:

 It is in accordance with the prescribed national law
 It is necessary to further the aims of the ECHR
 It is necessary in a democratic society. A democratic society is one characterised by broad mindedness, tolerance and pluralism.

Crime and Disorder Act 1998

Part 2 of this Act defines racially aggravated offences. A racial incident is defined as ‘any incident in which it appears to the reporting or investigating officer that the complaint involved an element of racial motivation; or any incident which includes an allegation of racial motivation made by any person.’ The Act requires to be proved beyond reasonable doubt, either, the existence of racial hostility at the time of committing the offence, or immediately before or after doing so, or that the offence was motivated wholly or partly by racial hostility.

Sex Discrimination (Gender Reassignment) Regulations 1999

The regulations cover employment and vocational training only. The definition of vocational training covers the all courses provided here at the University. The regulations extend the Sex Discrimination Act (1995) to cover discrimination on the grounds of gender reassignment – defined by the Sex Discrimination Act as ‘a process undertaken under medical supervision, for the purposes of reassigning a person’s sex by changing physiological or other characteristics of sex and includes any part of such a process.’ The regulations do not cover the provision of goods, facilities or services.


Article 13 of the Treaty of Amsterdam 1999

This Treaty updates the Treaty on European Union brought into force in Maastricht in 1992. It allows the European Council to prosecute Member States for failing to give equal opportunities in terms of freedom of movement of persons, social security and work opportunities. The aim of the Treaty is to increase freedom, security and justice within Europe. It achieves it by enhancing the fundamental rights of individuals, and rights of citizenship and for the first time in Europe, rights for persons that are disabled. The Treaty is made up of two types of measures. The first is legislation that is effective immediately in all of the Member States. The second is that of directives that require Member States to update their national legislation to fall in line with common standards given in the Treaty.

The Race Relations (Amendment) Act 2000

This Amendment places public authorities under a general duty to promote race equality. In carrying out their functions they must aim to:

 Eliminate unlawful discrimination
 Promote equality of opportunity
 Promote good relations between people of different racial groups.
The Act makes the duty proactive and also prescribes some specific duties to help achieve the aims of the general duty. Impact Assessment is one of these specific duties.

Special Educational Needs and Disability Act (2000) SENDA

Also referred to as Part 4 of the Disability Discrimination Act 1995. This Act relates to Education. It came into force in September 2002 and means that Universities, Colleges and Local Education Authorities have legal responsibilities not to treat disabled learners less favourably for a reason related to their disability and to provide reasonable adjustments for these students. The responsibilities are anticipatory.
The Employment Act 2002, section 42 amends the Equal Pay Act 1970 to introduce an equal pay questionnaire in employment tribunal equal pay cases. The questionnaire is not compulsory but failure to reply to it or evasive answers may lead to inferences being drawn by a tribunal.

Race Relations Act 1976 (Amendment) Regulations 2003

This legislation was derived from the EC Article 13 Race Directive which established for the first time a minimum standard of legal protection from racial discrimination across Europe. EC Directives are European Community Laws that Member states must comply with. The UK’s domestic legislation already conformed to most of the provisions of the Directive with some amendments being required to fulfill the Directive completely. The key improvements introduced were:

 A new definition of indirect discrimination meaning that in addition to the existing ‘formal’ practices more informal practices are covered thus increasing the circumstances under which claims of indirect discrimination can be brought.
 Explicit prohibition of racial harassment
 Shift of the burden of proof – now when a claimant establishes a prima facie case of racial discrimination or harassment the tribunal or court will uphold the complaint in the absence of a satisfactory explanation.
 A widening of the application of ‘general occupational requirement’ where it is applied appropriately
 Extension of rights to cover relationships that have come to an end – e.g. where an employer provides an unfair reference for an ex-employee that is racially motivated.
 Some categories of people who were exempt from the original Act, e.g. landlords and tenants, have been removed. In this example, no landlord will be able to discriminate any longer on racial grounds.

Employment Equality (Sexual Orientation) Regulations 2003

These came into force on 1 December 2003 making it unlawful to discriminate on grounds of sexual orientation in employment and vocational training (which includes study at the University). The regulations include protection against direct discrimination, indirect discrimination, victimisation and harassment.

Employment Equality (Religion and Belief) Regulations 2003
These came into force on 2 December 2003 and make it unlawful to discriminate on grounds of religion or belief held – or lack of religion or belief – in employment and vocational training (this includes study at the University). The regulations include protection against direct discrimination, indirect discrimination, victimisation and harassment.

The Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (Amendment) Regulations 2003
These came into force in October 2004. They extend the provisions of the original act to cover all employers, no matter how small, no matter how few employees they have in their organisation. An estimated one million more employers were brought under the scope of the Act. Employment provisions of the Act were extended to include: contract workers, office holders, self-employed people contracted in by an organisation to provide a specific purpose, trustees/managers of occupational pension schemes and organisations which provide employment services. The Act also extended provision to cover people undertaking work experience for a limited period of time for the purposes of vocational training, including students. The regulations also developed the definition of what constitutes disability discrimination. Three kinds of discrimination are defined:

 Direct discrimination
 Failure to make reasonable adjustments
 Disability-related discrimination
Victimisation and harassment are also specifically prohibited. The scope for reasonable adjustments has also been extended. Following the introduction of these regulations reasonable adjustments are required to any provision, practice or criterion which puts disabled people at a substantial disadvantage in comparison to non-disabled people.

The Gender Recognition Act 2004

The Act means that transsexual people can marry in their acquired gender, obtain a birth certificate recognising the acquired gender, and obtain benefits and a state pension just like anyone else of that gender.
To get this legal recognition, transsexual people have to apply to the Gender Recognition Panel and demonstrate that they have ‘gender dysphoria’, that they have lived for at least the last two years in their acquired gender, and that they intend to live in that gender until death. They must also be backed up by medical reports. ‘Gender dysphoric’ is the term used in the law for someone who identifies as the sex opposite to their physical characteristics.

Civil Partnership Act 2004

The Act allows same-sex couples to make a formal legal commitment to each other by entering into a civil partnership through a statutory civil registration procedure. This means that gay and lesbian couples who register their relationship will have similar rights and responsibilities to married couples including, for example, the right to survivors pension benefits. The Act and explanatory notes can be viewed on the HMSO website.

Disability Discrimination Act 2005

This legislation enhanced the Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (DDA) in a number of ways. A primary feature is the duty on public sector bodies (of which the University is one) to promote disability equality, in much the same way that the Race Relations (Amendment) Act 2000 requires the promotion of good race relations, and to publish a Disability Scheme. The general duty under the Disability Discrimination Act 2005 requires the University to work to:

 Eliminate unlawful disability discrimination and harassment
 Promote equality of opportunity and positive attitudes towards disabled people
 Take account of people’s disabilities (even if this means treating them more favourably)
 Encourage participation by disabled people in public life
Other provisions include an extended definition of disability*, and inclusion of General Qualification bodies, discriminatory advertisements by third parties, transport and private clubs with 25 or more members.

Since 5 December 2005 people diagnosed with cancer, HIV infection and multiple sclerosis, but not yet showing signs of their illness, have been protected for the first time under the Disability Discrimination Act. People with a mental health impairment no longer have to prove it is ‘clinically well recognised’ before claiming rights under the DDA, These changes have significantly broadened the coverage of the DDA, and provide legal protection for a further quarter of a million people against disability discrimination.

Employment Equality (Sex Discrimination) Regulations (2005)

These regulations, which cover employment and vocational training:

 Include a new definition of indirect sex discrimination,
 Prohibit harassment and sexual harassment
 Make less favourable treatment of women on grounds of pregnancy or maternity leave unlawful
 Extend protection to those undergoing gender reassignment
 Extend protection within vocational training and unpaid practical work experience.

Employment Equality (Age) Regulations 2006

These came into force on 1 October 2006 and make it unlawful to discriminate on the basis of age in all aspects of employment, including recruitment and training. The regulations do incorporate some situations where discrimination can be lawful if there is ‘objective justification’ but these are subject to strict guidelines. A default retirement age of 65 has been introduced and employers are only able to set a retirement age below 65 if it can be shown to be appropriate and necessary.

Equality Act 2006 (comes fully into force during 2007)

There are several key features to the Equality Act:
Gender: The Equality Act 2006 introduced a positive duty on public bodies (of which the University is one) to promote equality between men and women. This is similar to the established duties under the Race Relations (Amendment) Act (2000) and the Disability Discrimination Act 2005. There is now a statutory duty for the University to have due regard to the need to:

 Eliminate unlawful discrimination and harassment
 Promote equality of opportunity between men and women
This is known as the general duty. There are a number of specific duties which aim to support the achievement of the general duty. These include producing and publishing a Gender Equality Scheme, reviewing equal pay, tackling career development and segregation, and conducting impact assessments on gender.

Single Equality Commission: The Act will also create a single Commission which will replace the Commission for Racial Equality, the Disability Rights Commission and the Equal Opportunities Commission and will cover other equality strands (such as sexual orientation, religion and belief) that currently have no Commission. The new single commission will be called the Commission for Equality and Human Rights and will come into force in October 2007.

Religion and Belief: From 6 April 2007 The Equality Act extended protection on the grounds of religion and belief to provision of goods, facilities and services, the disposal and management of premises, in education and in the exercise of public functions. This brings the regulations more in line with existing provisions on Disability, Race and Sex.

The Equality Act (Sexual Orientation) Regulations 2007:

These took effect from 30 April 2007 and made it unlawful to discriminate on the grounds of sexual orientation
 In the provision of goods, facilities and services
 In the disposal and management of premises
 In education
 In the exercise of public functions